Trail of Tears

1835 Census

1835 Census of Cherokees East of the Mississippi

A Brief History of the Trail of Tears

Migration from the original Cherokee Nation began in the early 1800’s as Cherokees, wary of white encroachment, moved west and settled in other areas of the country.

A Cherokee Law from 1822

Regarding dealing with State of Georgia.

Boston Memorial

A memorial on behalf of the Cherokees, made by the people of Boston. Published in the Cherokee Phoenix, 1830.

Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia

Chief Justice John Marshall's Opinion of the 1831 case.

Cherokees feel they are to be sacrificed

Published in Cherokee Phoenix and Indians' Advocate Wednesday, March 17, 1830 , Vol. II, no. 48. Page 2, col. 5a-Page 3, col. 2b

Did the Cherokee Really Want to Emigrate

Prior to the Removals, Cherokees, called "Old Settlers," emigrated to Arkansas. Stories at the time in newspapers, or reports to government, erroneously stated the 'full' and traditional Cherokees wanted to emigrate. This articles shows differently. Published in the Cherokee Phoenix, March, 1830.

Friends' Memorial

The Society of Friends, a religious organization, presented this memorial to U.S. Congress. Published in the Cherokee Phoenix, March 5, 1830.

Indian Memorial

Submitted by the people of Massachusetts and published in the Cherokee Phoenix, April 7, 1830.

Letter from Chief John Ross

"We are overwhelmed! Our hearts are sickened, our utterance is paralized, when we reflect on the condition in which we are placed, by the audacious practices of unprincipled men, who have managed their stratagems with so much dexterity as to impose on the Government of the United States, in the face of our earnest, solemn, and reiterated protestations. . ."

Letter from John Ross

Letter from John Ross upon arrival at Beatties Prarie, 1839

Major General Scott's Ultimatum

From the Cherokee Agency, Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott delivered an ultimatum to the Cherokees remaining in northern Georgia they had to go west, and they had to go now!

Memorial of the Cherokee

"We are aware that some persons suppose it will be for our advantage to remove beyond the Mississippi. We think otherwise. Our people universally think otherwise. Thinking that it would be fatal to their interests, they have almost to a man sent their memorial to Congress, deprecating the necessity of a removal. . . .

Memorial of the Creek Indians

The Cherokees presented their own memorial to Congress, and here is a look at the efforts of another tribe, also later forced to march on the Trail of Tears. Published in the Cherokee Phoenix March 17, 1830.

Objection to Removal - 1829

To the Cherokee people, from Turkey Town.

Old Districts

Districts of the old Cherokee Nation, in the Eastern Homelands.

Parties leaving under their own supervision

From the Thornton Starr State Papers, a list of those Cherokee emigrants who left under their own supervision.

Philadelphia Memorials

The memorial on behalf of the Cherokee, adopted by Philadelphia. Published in the Cherokee Phoenix, 1830.

Ralph Waldo Emerson's Letter

. . .to President Martin VanBuren (1836)

Removal Act of 1830

An act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi.

Resolution of Council

Describes the effects of emigrating to Arkansas Territory; published in the Cherokee Phoenix, 1829

Tennessee House of Representatives Speech

By Mr. Mitchell, published in the Cherokee Phoenix, 1828.

Treaty of New Echota

Articles of a treaty, concluded at New Echota in the State of Georgia on the 29th day of Decr. 1835 by General William Carroll and JohnF. Schermerhorn commissioners on the part of the United States and the Chiefs Head Men and People of the Cherokee tribe of Indians.